Class Lecture Page


27 May Wednesday

MT Essay Question #2

Midterm Essay #2

(One Essay-posted here and on BB Course Documents) 5/27

MTERM ESSAY #2: Posted WEDNESDAY 7 AM 5/27; Due by SUNDAY 5/31 MIDNIGHT (please email your essay to me at 111 LS Mterm Essay #2 in Subject Line).


Question: Choose THREE of the periods below--including either #1 or #2 in your THREE (i.e. #1 + TWO OTHERS or #2 + TWO OTHERS)--to discuss the impact of the economy on Americans and their society. For example, you might discuss the impact of boom economic years on Americans, or years of economic depression. How has the economy affected or defined American culture?

(You might look at American society in terms of literature & culture (radio or film programming, for example); labor; social movements; reform movements; organizations, etc. )







1-thesis paragraph

2-period #1

3-period #2

4-period #3

4-conclusion (strong and thoughtful, pulling together your points)

Please use your text, and do not use the wiki! Please use YOUR OWN WORDS. It is very obvious when students plagiarize, and doing so will earn you an F. Writing an essay is thoughtful, detailed, time consuming work. Put the time in and you will get better and faster at writing.



18 May Tuesday

Triumph of Conservatism

Chapter 26: "The Triumph of Conservatism, 1969-1988"

Click "Triumph of Conservatism" for the era of limits & conservatism!



11 May Tuesday

Era of Reform

Chapter 25: "The Sixties: 1960-1968"

Click "Era of Reform" for the 1960s!



5 May Tuesday

Impact of WWII and the Cold War Era on the U.S.: The Affluent Society

Chapter 24: "The Affluent Society" (pictures of the Cahuenga Pass, 1950s LA Pub)

The 1950s unfolded as a time of terrific economic growth and materialism--the context in which the baby boomers grew and came of age. At the same time, this generation of youth were taught the importance of democracy, especially vis-a-vis the Soviet Communist System. As you read, consider the values taught this generation, along with the material comfort that surrounded many of them.

"Field Trip Films": 1) Duck and Cover (1951):

2) Are you Popular? (1947):

3) Is This Love? (1957)

4) Kennedy & Nixon Debates (1960):

Part 1:

Part 2:

(These are from the Prelinger Archive,

The Golden Age (1958-9 Cultural Trade b/t the U.S. and the Soviet Union--What did the U.S. include in their exhibition to show the "superiority" of modern captialism? Why the emphasis on standard of living? This has been referred to as the "Kitchen Debate," why? Rising standards of living b/t 1946 and 1973--by 1960, 60% Americans were defined as "middle class;" Official poverty rate fell from 30 % in 1950 to 22 % in 1960): CHANGING ECONOMY(U.S. predominant industrial power after WWII; steel, automobiles, aircraft; economy defined by the Cold War; significance of the West, the Northwest, & Southern California; Counterbalance to the decline in the New England Textile economy of the first industrial revolution; "Golden Age" of the American economy--since this time has shifted to services, education, information, finance, and entertainment--with a decline in manufacturing; 1950s factory labor declined, clerical workers increased and salaried workers rose by 60 % (white collar workers; rise in agribusiness with fewer farms; migration to urban areas, especially from the South and from Mexico) ; SUBURBAN NATION (residential construction and consumer goods; by 1960, suburban residents outnumbered urban and rural dwellers; the number of houses in the U.S. doubled; Levittown--Long Island, New York); GROWTH OF THE WEST (B/t WWII and 1975-30 Million Americans moved West; 1963, California surpassed New York; Los Angeles as a "centerless city" spread out--with the impact of the automobile; rise in number of single-family homes; trains and trollies replaced by freeways; growth into the San Fernando and San Bernrdino Valleys); CONSUMER CULTURE (We all KNOW about this! consumer items associated with American freedom; Macy's; discipline in work, more personal "freedom"; acceptance of debt, low interest; "freedom" was offered by "washing machines and dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, automobiles, and refrigerators"); TV WORLD (By 1960, 9 of 10 Americans owned a TV set; TV leading past time; changed eating habits--tv dinners; offered a shared cultural experience; television programming developed into bland and non-controversial programming; A NEW FORD (By 1960--80% Am Families had at least ONE car, 14% had two or more cars, most bought in the U.S., defense contracts in sunbelt eventuallly devastating to "old industrial heartland"; auto and freeways transformed Am life; altered Am landscape--motels, drive-ins, fast food--McDonald's by Ray Kroc in Illinois in 1954; WOMEN AT WORK AND AT HOME (Women lost war jobs; women's lives became centered in the family; the number of women in the workforce did continue to rise--many of whom were women with grown children, women working part time, and many worked to keep middle-class lifestyle; the happy housewive constatly advertised along with goods; Baby Boom: people married younger, divorced less frequently, had more children (3.2), at time of low immigration, Am populatin roe 20 %--reflecting births and better medicine, penicillan, for example; personal freedom once associated with work was associated with home; feminism lost on a generation of women relegated to the domiestic sphere and also physically separated from family and friends); A SEGREGATED LANDSCAPE (suburbs varied in class, but not with respect to the racial divide--1948 Supreme Court Decision outlawing racial covenants--1960, blacks represented less than 3 % of the population of Chicago's subrbs, for example; Levitt court ordered to sell to non-whites, but very slowly--by 1990, 127 black residents out of 53,000); PUBLIC HOUSING AND URBAN RENEWAL (1949 Congressional Housing Act; What was the result of urban renewal programs?); DIVIDED SOCIETY (What was the pattern of racial exclusion? Where did native-born whites live? Puerto Ricans? Southern blacks? Patterns of employment? Access to education? What was the perceived connection between race and housing values?); END OF IDEOLOGY (Idea that problems were solved, for the most part, and that people at least shared a "Judeo-Christian" heritage; what does Foner mean by the "end of ideology?"); SELLNG FREE ENTERPRISE (What was the "selling of free enterprise," and to what extent was enterprise "free"?); PEOPLE'S CAPITALISM (Some began to believe that the American capitaist system had solved problems of poverty--why?); LIBERTARIAN CONSEERVATIVES (Define conservative libertarianism. Why does it develop, for what reasons? Who was Milton Friedman?); NEW CONSERVATISM (Russell Kirk, Richard Weaver, Christian morality, Eisenhower, the Presidency).

The Eisenhower Era : IKE AND NIXON (Why did Ike run for the presidency, and what were his views? Nison's? Who was Helen Gahagan Douglas?); 1952 CAMPAIGN (What did Ike promise, and why was he poular?); MODERN REPUBLICANISM (What was his impact on Washington, D.C.? His ideas about social security? What was his "Modern Republicanist" agenda? How did it compare to the New Deal?); SOCIAL CONTRACT (Taft-Hartley, 1947; Merging of the AFL and CIO in 1955--what was the new "social contract"? To what extent did organized labor fight on behalf of workers who were not unionized already? Why did steel workers strike in 1959?); MASSIVE RETALIATION (Ike's view on war; Secretary of State John Foster Dulles--what was his view? Did the number of nucleaer warheads increase or decrease? What was meant by "massive retalliation"? What does MAD stand for? Take a look at "Duck and Cover, above); IKE AND THE RUSSIANS (What foreign policy did Ike work out with the Soviets, espeically Krushchev? What happened in 1960 to end the spirit of cooperation?); EMERGENCE OF THE THIRD WORLD (What was meant by the "third world," and why did it become important in the fifites, in the Cold War era? Who was Ho chi Minh?); COLD WAR IN THE THIRD WORLD (Jacobo Arbenz Guzman -Guatemala; Mohammed Mossadegh -Iran; United Fruit Company; Anglo-Iranian Oil Company; Central Intelligence Agency; U.N. Charter; Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Suez Canal in 1956; 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine; U.S. Troops to Lebanon); ORIGINS OF THE VIETNAM WAR(Ho Chi Minh, WWII-1945; National Security Council; Geneva Accords in 1954; Elections in 1956; Ngo Dinh Diem; Buddhists in South Vietnam--how did U.S. policies develop?); MASS SOCIETY AND ITS CRITICS (Why did people begin to voice dissent? What were concerns over the ColdWar, "modern mass society," and white collar work? What are some examples of questions asked? Who was David Riesman? What were the concerns of John Kenneth Galbraith? What were the concerns about advertising?); REBELS WITHOUT A CAUSE (J.D. Salinger's 1951 Catcher in the Rye; Blackboard Jungle; Rebel without a Cause; Censorship codes regarding vilence and crime; teenagers and youth; Playboy Magazine); THE BEATS (Who were the beats, and what was their message?).

Freedom Movement : ORIGINS OF THE MOVEMENT (ML King, Gunnar Myrdal, NAACP--characterize the South, what were the conditions of race?); LEGAL ASSAULT ON SEGREGATION (LULAC, NAACP; 1946 Mendez v. Westminster; Earl Warren; 1954 Brown v. Board of Education; Thurgood Marshall; 1938 Supreme Court decision regarding Lloyd Gaines; Heman Sweatt; Plessy v. Ferguson; what was the overall trend in decisions regarding race, why?); BROWN CASE (What was the Brown case about, and why do you think the court made this decision?); MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT (What was the role of organizations in the Montgomery Bus Boycott, along with that of Rosa Parks? Why was this boycott successful, do you think?); DAYBREAK OF FREEDOM (How did the language of freedom pervade the Civil Rights Movement? What were its many meanings? Examples?); LEADERSHIP OF KING ("Stride otward Freedom," "I have a Dream"-1963, peaceful civil disobedience--Ghandi and Thoreau, Christian Ideals); MASSIVE RESISTANCE (1956-Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)--"with all deliberate speed"-how did various states initially fight integration?); EISENHOWER AND CIVIL RIGHTS (1957-Civil Rights Law, Lyndon B. Johnson, Autherine Lucy, Orval Faubus, Little Rock Nine--what events happened under Eisenhower's presidency?).

Election of 1960 : KENNEDY AND NIXON; END OF THE 1950s (Watch the debates, at the Prelinger Archive and listed above--what were the results of the 1960 election? What did this election reveal about the nature of political power--was it changing? Why?).



28 April Tuesday

From Boom to Bust: 20s to the Great Depression

Chapter 20: "From Business Culture to Great Depression: The Twenties 1920-1932"

The Business of America (Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti, John Dos Passos, & American Culture in the 1920s): Decade of Prosperity (Calvin Coolidge-""The chief business of the American people is business", cehmicals, aviation, elecctronics, food processing, household appliances, the automobile and prosperity, General Motors & marketing--1929: 85 % all cars produced in the U.S. and half all families owned an auto--the auto brought growth in steel, rubber, oil, road construction, tourism, and suburban growth); A New Society (credit, installment plans, vacuum cleaners-washing machines-refrigerators, psychological aspects of advertising, more leisure, double the number of people attending movies from 1922 to 1929, Hollywood reigns supreme in filmaking after WWI over the French, Radios and phonographs and mass entertainment, RCA Victor, Enrico Caruso, Charlie Chaplin, Babe Ruth, Jack Depmpsey, Charles Lindbergh, Andre Siegfried--noted that the American standard of living was considered sacred); Limits of Prosperity (Weaknesses in the ecnomic prosperity: unequal distribution of wealth, profits rose 2X that of wage, economic concentration, a few firms dominated the economy, 1929-the wealth of 5% was more than that of the lowest 60%, no savings, 40% population in poverty, technology required fewer workersnumber of workers in manufacturing down 5 %, unemnployment n New England1929-75% households did not have washing machines and 60% did not have radios); Farmers' Plight (Why did farmers have rough economic times in the 1920s? What was the impact of mechanization on agriculture? Number of farms and farmers declined, rise in foreclosures, migration from rural to urban areas and to Southern California--Los Angeles grew and became a center for oil production, autos, aircraft, and Hollywood films--rural decline before the crash); Image of Business (1920s-selling the American way of life worldwide, rise in use of public relations firms, Congressman Arsene Pujo led hearings b/t 1912-1914 on Wall Street manipulation of stock prices, increasing numbers of people invested in stocks); Decline of Labor (Why did labor organizations decline in the 1920? Why was there a rise faith in industrial freedom? What is "welfare capitalism?" Open Shop, Collective Bargaining); Equal Rights Amendment (What happened to the coalition supporting women's suffrage after suffrage was won? How were they divided? Harriot Stanton Blatch--what was the division over the ERA? Why? Differences b/t philosophies based in motherhood and individual autonomy, Alice Paul and the National Women's Party, Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921); Women's Freedom (sexual freedom tied to individual autonomy or "persnoal rebellion," flappers in the era of "bobbed hair, short skirts, public smoking and drinking, and unapologetic use of birth-control methods such as the diaphragm. . . " Clara Bow and Rudolph Valentino, impact of marriage on women's lives).

Business and Government: Retreat from Progressivism (What was Walter Lippmann's chastisement of the American public, and "public opinion?" "ill-informed and prone to fits of enthusiasm," Robert and Helen Lynd, Middletown--what did they find out about the 1920s? Consumption, decline in voter participation, citizenship less important than consumerism); Republican Era (What was the relationship between the government, business, and the Republican Paryt? The impact of businessmen on industry regulation? Herbert Hoover, William Howard Taft--how did the court's repudiation of Muller v. Oregon in 1923 reflect the ideas of business in the 1920s?); Corruption in Government (Warren G. Harding, Nan Britton, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, Attorney General Harry Daugherty, Veterans' Bureau Charles Fores, Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall, Teapot Dome); Election of 1924 (Calvin Coolidge-Mas Gov, Re-elected President, La Follette and the Progressive Party--what were the significant progressive issues?); Economic Diplomacy (What drove American foreign policy in the 1920s? isolationism, Washington Naval Arms Conference 1922, U.S. and the League of Nations, Fordney-McCumber Tariff 1922, WWI reparations, markets for raw materials--copper in Chile, oil in Venezuela, Cesar Sardino in Nicaragua, Anastasio Somoza).

The Birth of Civil Liberties: The Free Mob (What examples are there of repression in the 1920s?); Clear and Present Danger 1917-American Civil Liberties Union, Charles T. Schenck); The Court and Civil Liberties (Benjamin Gitlow, Mary Ware Dennett, Anita Whitney).

Culture Wars: Fundamentalist Revolt ("Modernists"; Harry Emerson Fosdick, fundamentalists-why?); Scopes Trial (What was this trial about? Who was John Scopes? Clarence Darrow? Who won, and what was the impact of this tiral?); Second Klan (What was the nature of the second Klan, what were its goals?); Closing the Golden Door (Between 1921 and 1924, what changes were made to immigration policies? Why?); Race and the Law (What was the significance of race in the making of new laws and why? ; Pluralism andLiberty Anthropoloitgits--Franz Boas, Alfred Kroeber, Rugh Benedict-impact of their ideas?); Promoting Tolerance (Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rithMeyer v. Nebraska (1923); Ermergence of Harlem (Charles McKay, "slumming," CottonClub); Harlem Renaissance (Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, the "New Negro," Home to Harlem (1928)-DuBois' response--are there differences b/t generatins here? The case of Ossian Sweet).

Great Depression: Election of 1928 (What was the nature of the 1928 campaign, and why did Hoover win?); Coming of the Depression (Black Thursday-had there been signs of problems? What happened t the Stock Market b/t 1929 and 1932?); Americans and the Depression (How did the GD affect Americans?); Resignation and Protest (Milo Reno, Communist Party); Hoover's Response (What was Hoover's response, and why?); Worsening Economic Outlook (Hawley-Smoot Tariff, Reconstruction FinanceCorporation); Freedom in the Modern World (New School for Social Research in NYC, John Dewey, Charles Beard, ideas about the socially conscious state and cultural pluralism).


Chapter 21: "New Deal"

The First New Deal--signficance of the Grand Coulee Dam?: FDR/ Election of 1932 (What contributed to FDR's win in 1932?; Coming of the New Deal (Adolph Hitler and the Nazi Party, Joseph Stalin-why? Frances Perkins, Harry Hopkins, Harold Ickes, Louis Brandeis, "brain trust"); Banking Crisis (Bank Holiday, Glass-Steagall Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation -FDIC); NRA (National INdustrial Recovery Act, National Recovery Administration--and you thought it was the National Rifle Association . . . . Section 7a, Industrial Freedom); Government Jobs (Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps); Public Works Public Works Administration, Civil Works Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority); New Deal and Agriculture (Agricultural Adjustment Act--Dust Bowl); New Deal and Housing (Conference on Home Building, Federal Housing Administration21rst Amendment); Court and the New Deal (What was the reaction of the Supreme Court to the New Deal? U.S. v. Butler);

Grassroots Revolt: Labor's Great Upheaval (NIRA, Wagner Act, Frances Perkins; 1934 Stikes--examples?); Rise of the CIO (John L. Lewis, Congress of Industrial Organizations, United Auto Workers, General Motors Strke); Labor and Politics (1937 Agreetment with the UAW); Voices of Protest (End Poverty In California-Upton Sinclair, Huey Long, the Kingfish, Father Charles Coughlin).

Second New Deal--why was there a "second New Deal? Harry HopkinsRural ELctrification Agency WPA and the Wagner Act (WPA, Wagner Act); American Welfare State (Social Security Act of 1935); Social Security System (Explain the social secruity sytem?).

A Reckoning with Liberty--in this section, overall, why is there a fight b/t FDR and the Court? What is meant by "a switch in time saves nine? What marks the end of the Second New Deal?: FDR and the Idea of Freedom; Election of 1936; Court Fight; End of the Second New Deal.

Limits of Change: New Deal and Women (Economy Act of 1932, New Deal Programs and women); Southern Veto How did the South like the New Deal? Why? What was the "sothern veto"?); Stigma of Welfare (why?); Indian New Deal John Collier, Grand Coulee Dam); Mexican Americans (Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Field); African Americans (Last Hired, First Fired-Mary McLeod Bethune); Federal Discrimination (What was the relationship of these new programs in the 30s to race? Federal employment Practices?).

New Conception of America--for this section, why were communists popular in this era? Who did they best represent? In what ways did they address problems other reformers didnt'? In this section, assess the actions of the communists: Heyday of American Communism; Redefiining the People; Promoting Diversity; Challenging theColor Line; Labor and Civil Liberties; End of the New Deal; New Deal in American History.



24 April Friday

Reading Guide Week #10: American Values and the World

Chapter 18: Progressive Era, 1900-1916

How does the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire affect Americans, and why? How did it affect the labor movemen? How did economic changes affect Americans, a population heavily influenced by immigration in these years? Americans began to organize in many different kinds of associations, from labor unions and socialist leagues to manufacturers' organizations--how did these organizations contribute to the rise of political progressivism and Teddy Roosevelt? Evaluate the progressives, their movement, and their presidents--overall, what do you think they accomplished, or not?

An Urban Age and a Consumer Society: Golden Age of Agricultre; Settling of the Plains and the Homestead Act of 1863; The "City" and progressive politics; 4.7 mill residents in N.Y. in 1910; Muckrakers--Lewis Hine, Lincoln Steffens (Shame of the Cities), McClure's Magazine, Ida Tarbell (History of the Standard Oil Company), Theodore Dreiser (Sister Carrie), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle); Global Immigration-"New Immigration" from southern and eastern Europe, 1901-1914-13 mill immgrants to U.S. from Italy, Rusia, and Austro-Hungarian Empire, worldwide migration from industrial expansion and the decline of traditional agriculture, Chinese immigration, from 1840-1924 40 million people emigrated to the U.S.--what conditions motivated people to leave their homes, and what kinds of opportunities drew them to the U.S.? What drew Asians and Mexicans to California and Hawaii? Why did people leave Mexico for the Southwest? By 1910, 1/7 of all Americans were foreign-born (largest percentage in American history); Immigrant Quest for Freedom--from serf to economic opportunities, "birds of passage," ethnic neighborhoods, churches, agriculture, mines, and industry; Consumer Freedom--urban consumption, retail mail-order houses and urban chain stores, new technology by 1910--electric sewing machines, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, record players--not many could afford these items, but "it was in Progressive America that the promise of mass consumption became the foundation for a new understanding of freedom as access to the cornucopia of goods made available bymodern capitalism" (how does this relate to us today?)--what kinds of new leisure and entertainment did Americans enjoy, and why? Motion pictures, vaudeville, and nickelodeons; The Working Woman--More women working for wages--the top job for women was as domestics--who were these "new" working women, which women were working for wages? 8 million women in 1920 working for wages, 1/4 were married--how did they become "a symbol of female emancipation? (independence, Charlotte Perkins Gilman-Women and Economics, differences b/t mothers and daughters); Rise of Fordism--Henry FordFord Motor Company (1905), Model T, the moving assembly line, $5 a day--1910 Ford produced 34,000 cars at $700 each to 730,000 at $316 in 1916; Promise of Abundance--from production to consumerism and advertising, "the American way of life," "consumer consciousness"; American Standard of Living-John A. Ryan, A Living Wage in 1906.

Varieties of Progressivism: Restraints on freedom were increasingly seen in economic terms. Industrial Freedom (Frederick W. Taylor and "Scientific Management", increase in white-collar workers--"salespeople, bookkeepers, salaried professionals, corporate managers,--what was the meaning of "industrial freedom" and "industrial democracy"? How did people begin to perceive the "labor problem"? Louis D. Brandeis and the notion of industrial slavery); Socialist Presence (peak influence in the Progressive Era, The Socialist Party (1901), What reforms did they want? 1912-150,000 "dues-paying" socialists--where was it most popular?); Gospel of Debs (Eugene V. Debs--converted socialist after beng jailed in the Pullman Strike of 1894-who supported him? Debs ran for the presidencey in 1912 (and other years), winning 900,000 votes--in Europe and the U.S., socialism popular before WWI); AFL & IWW (Samuel Gompers led the American Federation of Labor--what was the National Civic Federation? Who did the AFL represent? How did they compare to the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)? Who was William "Big Bill" Haywood?); New Immigrants on Strike (Uprising of the 20,000, Lawrence Strike--woolen mills, New Orleans 1907 dockworkers' strike, United Mine Workers of America strike in Colorado--Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company--to what extent were these strikes successful, what was won?); Labor and Civil Liberties (Mary "Mother Jones", the Commission on Industrial Relations and the issue of freedom of speech--how did the IWW fight the bans agains meetings and freedom of speech?); New Feminism (Feminist Alliance, Heterodoxy, bhoemia, Greenwich Village, Isadora Duncan, Mabel Dodge, Crystal Eatman); Rise of Personal Freedom (sex and psychiatry, Sigmund Freud, "feminism"); Birth Control Movement (Emma Goldman, Margaret Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know", The Woman Rebel, Sanger's clinic in Brooklyn, IWW and the Socialist Party); Native American Progressivism (1911 Society of American Indians, Carlos Montezuma, Wassaja, Bureau of Indian Affairs).

Politics of Progressivism: What issues become most political in Progressive Era? What was "progressivism"? Effective Freedom (international progressivism-why? London and Paris in 1850 had populations greater than 1 million--by 1900 there were 12 such cities--including NY, Chicago, and Philadelphia--issues of pensions, minimum wage laws, unemployment insurance, regulation of working conditions and safety, "social legislation"--what was the relationship b/t government and social problems? What are the roots of progressive reforms? Said writer Randoph Bourne, "Freedom means a democratic cooperation in determining the ideals and purposes and industrial and social institutions of a country."); State and Local Reforms (Hazen Pingree and Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones, Robert M. La Follette); Progressive Democracy (Progressive political reforms--what was their purpose? Seventeenth Amendment, popular election of judges, primary elections, the nitiative referendum, and recall--example of Hiram Johnson, women's suffrages--at the same time, disenfranchisement of blacks in the South, nonpartisan insulation from the populace, voting restrictions--literacy tests, residency requirements--limitations on voting for the poor); Government by Expert (yes, this is where it begins. . . our reliance on "experts," the educated, the survey, the collection of information, a religious faith in the rational--scientific inquiry, example of Harvard educated Walter Lippmann); Jane Addams and Hull House (What was Hull House and the social settlement movement, and upon what was it based?)' D[rstjrsfd gpt Trgpt, z080,000 college-educated women in the U.S. by 1900--what opportunities were open to them? Teaching, nursing, social services--the idea of "uplift" and reform attracted many of these women--what was the role of government? How did the social settlement movement serve them as well as those they served? What issues did they address? How did women organize against child labor? Why were settlement houses called "spearheads for reform"? Julia Lathrop, Florence Kelley, CIldren's Bureau 1912, Helen Campbell); Campaign for Women's Suffrage (National American Woman Suffrage Association and the changing tide of the suffrage movement after 1900, state granted suffrage--example of Wyoming and Utah--what about Colorado, Idaho, and Illinois? California?); Maternalist Reform (traditional notions of women's role within the home and nontraditional public action resulted in "maternalist reforms--Mothers' Pensions, Muller v. Oregon-1908, Lochner, limitation of women's work hours--building "gender inequlity into the early foundations of the welfare state"--government backed reforms on behalf of women eventually would be extended to men); Idea of Economic Citizenship (Brandeis and the idea of universal economic entitlements for citizens, regardless of status (such as mothers or the "undeserving" poor, workmen's compensation--most minimum wage laws and maximum hours were protected women in particular).

Progressive Presidents (and the development of nationalism): Teddy Roosevelt (economic regulation and conservation--in what ways did TR bring about a more national outlook?); Taft (Philippines, antitrust and Standard Oil--violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, Sixteenth Amendment, Payne-Aldrich Tariff, Pinchot, split in Progressive Party); Election of 1912 (Taft, Roosevelt, Wilson, and Debs--how was this election significant, and what was its outcome? Explain the platforms and perspectives of each of these candidate); New Freedom and New Nationalism (In what ways was Wilson a prgressive, and what was his platform? How did he compare to TR? What was the significance of Wilson's platform?); Wilson's First Term (Clayton Act of 1914, Keating-Owen Act, Adamson Act, Warehouse Act); Expanding Role of Government (By 1916, in what ways had the national government become stronger?)

Chapter 19: Making World Safe for Democracy

What is the impact of WWi on growing American nationalism? Why does the U.S. become involved in Panama? In Latin America? Mexico? How does the first world war affect the economy and foregin policy of the U.S.? Mostly, here, how does the "war to end all wars" and the war for democracy affect social relationships in the U.S., and "who is an American?" Having built a stronger centralized state, how do officials wield such power in times of war and on behalf of "national security"? In what ways is 1919 significant?

An Era of Intervention: Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary, Moral Imperialism, Wilson and Mexico (you should know here the major foreign policy statments, the reasons for U.S. involvement in Latin America, and the events that brought Wilson to Mexico).

America and the Great War: Neutrality and Preparedness, The Road to War, The Fourteen Points (When did the war begin in Europe, and why? When did Americans become involved and why? What was the impact of the war on Americans--make a list, from the economy and foreign policy to social relations--what are the many ways the war affected Americans? (including the next section, too) Remember the effect of the war, really, on the world--there was so much devastation and death, some have seen this as the beginning of a new modern era.)

The War at Home: The Progressives' War (Who supported the war--why did progressives support the war?) ; The Wartime State; The Wartime State (Selective Service Act, May 1917, Bernard Baruch, War Industries Board, Food Administration, Herbert Hoover, War Labor Board); Propaganda (Union Leagues, Loyal Publication Society, IWW and Socialist Party, George Creel, Committtee on Public Information); "Great Cause of Freedom" (What was the relationship between the "cause of freedom" and patriotism?); Coming of Women's Suffrae Jeanette Rankin, war protest, women and the war, National Women's Party, Alice Paul); Prohibition (popular during war, seen as part of American "values", southern and midwetern states, Baptists and Methodists, German American owned breweries); Liberty in Wartime (war, the Constitution, and Civil Liberties); The Espionage Act (First time since the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 were restrictions placed on Civil Liberties, provisions of Act, opposition--Eugene Debs); Coercive Patriotism (flag as test of patriotism, Minnesota Commission of Public Safety, Loyalty Oaths for teachers, American Protective League).

Who is an American: The "Race Problem"; Americanizaton and Pluralism (Americanization, national culture, Israel Zangwill's The Melting Pot-1908, in what ways was "Americanization" encouraged?); Anti-German Crusade (Emphasis on English-why did "hamburger" become "liberty Sandwich"?); Toward Immigration Restriction (Lewis Terman-IQ -1916, undesirables, "Anglo Saxon", Buck v. Bell and Eugenics, sterilization); Groups Apart: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Asian Americans (segregation in the Southwest, Mexican immigrants and California schools, separate systems, ambiguos Puerto Rican citizenship); The Color Line (How was the "color line" defined in norther communities? In progressive organizations? In the South?); Roosevelt, Wilson, and Race (Brownsville, Texas 1906, Progressive Party rejection of civil rights 1912, D.W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation); W.E.B. Du Bois and the Revival of Black Protest (What were the ideas of Du Bois, expressed in his 1903 The Souls of Black Folk? Niagara Movement, NAACP, Baily v. Alabama-1911); Closing Ranks (black hopes and WWI); TheGreat Migration and the Promised Land (90% blacks lived in the South, and WWI brought blacks northward in a Great Migration--to what extent did they find "new lives"?; Racial Violence (Where and how many riots occurred in 1917 and at the end of the war?; The Rise of Garveyism (Who was Marcus Garvey, and what did he want blacks in the U.S. to do?).

1919: The Worldwide Upsurge (How did Lenin and the Russians contribute to a revolutionary "upsurge"?; Upheaval in America (flu epidemic, A. Mitchell Palmer, "new industrial order", labor, strikes, and war, strike wave of 1919); The Great Steel Strike (Why did workers strike, and what did they win?); The Red Scare (Why did the Red Scare begin, and what were the Palmer raids? What wa the role of J.Edgar Hoover? ); Wilson at Versaille 1918-League of Nations, reparations); Impossible Demands (self-determination); Seeds of Wars to Come; Treaty Debate (What aspects of the treaty did the U.S. ratify, and how did this process affect Wilson?).



14 April Tuesday

Frontiers: Gilded Era and Imperialism

Welcome to the Gilded Age! This is an era of capital accumulation and concentration--an era in which expansion west and the abundance of resources result in tremendous growth. Such growth also results in an economy characterized by periods of boom and bust, along with the building of infrastructure. In this era, between 1870 and 1920, there is also the building of a national culture. What are the benefits of corporate industrialization? What are the costs? In what ways is the government involved in industrialization, in what ways is the economy political? What are the characteristics of the burgeoning national American culture?

Reading Guide Week #9: Guilded Age and World Stage

Chapter 16: "America's Guilded Age, 1870-1890"

The Second Industrial Revolution: Industrial Economy (factory production, mining, and railroad construction; 1913-U.S. produced 1/3rd the worlld's industrial output--""more than the total of Great Britain, France, and Germany combined"; half all industrial workers worked in plants with "over 250 employees"; 1880-most workers were in non-farming jobs; 1890-2/3rs all workers labored for wages; b/t 1870 and 1920-11 million moved from farms to the cities & 25 million immigrants; signiicance of New York, Pittsburgh, and Chicago--Iron, steel, meat processing); Railroads and the National Market (RR track tripoled b/t 1860 & 1880-then tripled agian by 1920; RR created national markets; Ivory Soap & Quaker Oats; Montgomery Ward & Sears, Roebuck & Co.); Spirit of Innovation (Atlantic Cable in 1866; telephone, typrewriter, and camera--1870-1880s; Thomas A. Edison; first electric generating station in Manhattan-1882; General Electric); Competition and Consolidation (economic booms and busts; 1873-1897 "Great Depression" around world; "ruthless competition and chaotic market place""pools" to fix prices; "trusts"U.S. Steele-J.P. Morgan, 1901, Standard Oil, and International Harvester); Rise of Andrew Carnegie (Who was Andrew Carnegie and in what ways was he significant?); Triumph of John D. Rockefeller (Who was John D. Rockefeller, and how was he signficant?); Workers' Freedom in Indusrial Age (How did these changes affect workers, and why was their impact "uneven"? technical skills; semi-skilled workers; unemployment in 1870s and 1890s; what were new conditions of labor and why? Why do you think the U.S. had the highest rate of deaths in factories and in mines? What was Nell Cusack's article about, and what were "sweatshops"?); Wealth and Poverty ( In this era, there was such visual contrast between weatlh and poverty--between Nob Hill/ Van Ness Avenue and the waterfront in SF; growing middle class professionals; significance of making money; Income of top 1 %=bottom half of populatiion; top 1% owned more property than 99%; Thorstein Veblen-The Theory of the Leisure Class and "conspicuous consumption"; Mathew Smith-Sunshine and Shadow in 1868; Jacob Riis-How the Other Half Lives-1890); .

Transformation of the West: Diverse Region (trans-mississippi West; buffalo heards & 250,000 Indians; Frederick Jackson Turner-1893 closing of the frontier in "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"; "individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility"; what was the idea of a "safety valve"?); Diverse Region (what was the role of the federal government?); Farming (whet, corn--Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas; problems of farming on the Great Plains?); Bonanza Farms (John Wesley Powell; Homestead Act of 1862, family farms, international markets); Large-Scale Agriculture in California-Agribusiness (How is farming in Calaifornia different than in other areas?); Cowboy & Corporate West (What is the story of the "cowboys" in the West? Tel us the story of thcattle, the Railroad--Abilene, Dodge City, and Wichita Kansas, and the long drives. Who were the "cowboys" and how did their work change?); Subjugation of the Plains Indians (What happened to the Indians of the Great Plains, the Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Kiowa, the Sioux? During the Civil War? Navajo's "Long Walk"; Grant's Peace Policy ); "Let Me Be a Free Man" (What happened to Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce? What were his ideas of freedom? Battle of Little Bighorn, George Custer; Black Hills of Dakota Territory; 8 new states; Sitting Bull); Remaking Indian Life (Bureau of Indian Affairs, boarding schools, end of treaty system); Dawes Act (What was the Dawes Act, and what do you think was its affect on Indian cultures? Why?); Indian Citizenship (Elk v. Wilkins-18841924 CVongressional decree regarding citizenship); Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee (What was the Ghost Dance? What happened at Wounded Knee and why?).

Politics in a Gilded Age--why do we call it the Gilded Age?: Corruption of Politics (Reform Act of 1884; James Garfield; Chester Arthur; Boss Tweed James Blain, Credit Mobilier); Politics of Dead Center -; Government and the Economy (Federal workforce; Greenbacks, Gold Standard-1870); Reform Legislation (Civil Service Act of 1883, Interstate Commerce Commission-1887, Sherman Antittrust Act); Political Conflict in the States ( What are some examples of Third Political Parties, and why did they appear? What happened to the Labor Movement?).

Freedom in the Gilded Age: The Social Problem (What was the "social problem" addressed by Foner?); Freedom, Inequality, and Democracy (What is the impact of the concentration of capital? Liberal reformers); Social Darwinism (How did mericans understand these changes? Charles Darwin, ON the Origin of Species, "natural selection", "survival of the fittest", William Graham Sumner--summerize Sumner's views); Liberty of Contract (What was the signficance of the contract iat tis time?); The Courts and Freedom (Fourteenth Amendment, Munn v. Illinois-1877, Wabash v. Illinois, U.S. v. E.C. Knight, Co., Lochner v. NY).

Labor and the Republic: "The Overwhelming Labor Question" (Why was 1877 such a dramatic year?); The Knights of Labor and the "Conditions Essential to Liberty" (Knights of Labor with about 800,000 in 1886--what did they represent?); Middle Class Reformers (Ignatius Donelly, Caesar's Column; Henry George, Progress and Poverty-1879, Edward Bellamy, Lookng Backward -1888); Progress and Poverty (What were the ideas of Henry George and Laurence Grunland); Bellamy's Utopia (What were Edward Bellamy's ideas--his Utopia?); A Social Gospel (What was the Social Gospel? ); Haymarket ( What happened at Haymarket? Who was killed?); Labor and Politics (political actions of labor b/t 1886 and 1888; Hnery George for mayor--beat by Theodore Roosevelt, Know-nothing PartyKnights of Labor).

Chapter 17: "Freedom's Boundaries at Home and Abroad 1890-1900"

Populist Challenge: Who were the Populists, what was their platform, and how did they gain power? To what extent do you think they achieved power? (The Farmers' Alliance; The People's Party; "Cyclone Davis"; Populist Platform; Populist Coalition; James Weaver; Lorenzo Lewelling; Coxey's Army; Eugene Debs; Pullman Strike; In re Debs; populist relationship to labor; William Jennings Bryan--Bryan on the Gold Standard--explain Bryan's position; Campaign of 1896 and William McKinley--what interests did McKinley represent? The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum-1900--Gold Standard Act of 1900.

The Segregated South: What happened in the South after the federal troops left in 1877? (Redeemers, role of the law in persecuting people and freed men and women--convict workers and labor; Henry Grady and the New South; conditions for blacks in the Upper South, South Carolina and Gerogia rice growing regions, and the Deep South; significance of schools, colleges, churches, business, women's clubs; Knights of Labor; Exodus to Kansas; Benjamin "Pap" Singleton; Decline of black politics--National Association of Colored Women-1896; black disenfranchisement; 1940-3% adult black southerners registereed to vote; segregation--Civil Rights Cases-1883; Plessy v. Ferguson-1896; Ku Klux Klan; white domination and the increase in lynchings, Ida B. Wells; Memphis Free Press--What does Foneer mean by the "politics of memory"?

Redrawing the Boundaries: What was the nature of the social order in the 1890s to the 20th century? Immigration--and where did these immigrants come from? Nativism, Chinese Exclusion -Tape v. Hurley-1885, Yick Wo v. Hopkins-1886, U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, Fong Yue Ting -1893-1904; Booker T. Washington--what were his views about the condition of blacks? What did the AFL stand for, and why did it become so popular and surpass the Knights of Labor in 1887? Who headed this union? How did women do in this era--what was the significance of the the WCTU, founded by Frances Willard? What was the meaning of "Home Protection"? Who was Carrie Chapman Catt, and what was the significance of the National American Women's Suffrage Association?

Becoming a World Power: What was the "New Imperialism," and what were the reasons behind American exampanionism? Justification? What were Mahan's ideas about the significance of the Navy? Explain how the Spanish American War began--what do you think? What was the course of the Spanish American War--from Cuba to the Philippines? What did the U.S. take away at the end of the war? How do you define American imperialism, and do you think it was different from European imperialism? If so, how--explain.


S P R I N G B R E A K!



28 March Saturday

Midterm Essay #1

Midterm Exam #1 Question: From the Colonial through Reconstruction Eras--what THREE MOST ENDURING characteristics do you find most define Americans? Explain the development of each of these characteristics over time--for example, independence, individualism, equality, various kinds of freedoms (be specific), equality, adventure, etc. After reading about American history, what traits emerge the most significant?

After you have addressed these characteristics in depth, add a thoughtful paragraph regarding which of the following you find to be most critical in the development of an American culture--economics, society, or politics--which of these areas of American life have been most central to the development of American culture? (are you an economic, social, or political historian?)

Again, be sure to include lots of specific examples from reading, along with the following in your essay:

1-An Opening & Thesis (you might write this last)
2-Three Paragraphs on your Chosen Character Traits
3-One paragraph on the significance of economic, social, or political reasons for the development of these traits (choose one for purposes of analysis)
4-A Conclusion

Please email me your essay by Midnight of Thursday, April 2nd--and be sure to write H130 MT Essay #1 in the subject line.



24 March Tuesday

Reading Guide Week #7: Reconstruction

Chapter 15: "What Is Freedom?": Reconsruction 1865-1877

"Freedom as a Terrain of Conflict"

What are the phases of Reconstruction--and why did "Radical Reconstruction" come about? Evaluate Reconstruction. To what extent were there accomplishments, and what were they? What are the enduring legacies of the Reconstruction era?

The Meaning of Freedom: Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom (escaping injustice and punishment, the separation of families, the lack of an education, and sexual exploitation--with freedom, blacks held mass meetings, acquired previously prohibited items, traveled, looked for lost family members and better jobs--some moved to the cities); Families in Freedom (families, churches, and schools were strengthened in freedom, along with a desire to match 19th century patterns of female domesticity-though a much larger percentage of black than white women had to work for wages because of poverty); Church and School (independent black Methodists and Baptists established their own churches, the thirst for education, the Freedman's Bureau and northern missionary society schools, Fisk University/ Tennessee, and Hampton Institute/ Virginia, and Howard University in D.C.); Political Freedom (Crispus Attucks and Fourth of July celebrations became symbolic of the desire for political freedom and full citizenship); Land, Labor, and Freedom (Look at the map of the Burrows Plantation before and after the war to see the development of sharecropping over the course of twenty years, the striving for freedom as an "open ended process" that unfolded over time); Masters without Slaves (260,000 Confederates--or 1/5th of all southern adult men died, southern property was 30% lower than before the war, many southern whites lost all their money, narrowly defined black freedom); The Free Labor Vision (idea of free labor, the idea of remaking the Soth in the image of the North, 1865-Freedman's Bureau); The Freedmen's Bureau (O.O. Howard, Freedman's Bureau from 1865 to 1870, education and health care); The Failure of Land Reform (why was it that land reform did not take root? What was the impact of Andrew Johnson's policies?); Toward a New South (sharecropping int he cotton and tobacco belts, problems in expansion); The White Farmer (What were the challenges of rebuilding agriculture? How did farmers afford to produce their crops--what was a crop lien? How does the case of Matt Brown illustrate farming in the post war South?); The Urban South.

The Making of Radical Reconstruction: Andrew Johnson (who was Andrew Johnson, and how did he direct Reconstruction after Lincoln's death?); The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction (Presidential Reconstruction, ConfederateLeaders); The Black Codes (What were the Black Codes, and when/ why were they passed?); The Radical Republicans (Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens-who were the radical Republicans, who did they represent, what regions?); The Origins of Civil Rights (Lyman Trumbull, Civil Rights Bill, presidential veto); The Fourteenth Amendment (What is the 14th Amendment, and how and why was it pased); The Reconstruction Act (Why was this Act passed, and what was its impact?); Impeachment and the Election of Grant (impeachment, 1868 campaign, "waving the bloody shirt"); The Fifteenth Amendment (What is the 15th Amendment?) ; The "Great Constitutional Revolution" (strong national state & equality, reversal of Dred Scott (1857), federal government as a "custodian of freedom"); Boundaries of Freedom; The Rights of Women; Feminists and Radicals (Why did women begin to "agitate" after the passage of the 14th and 15th Amendments? What were there demands, and what associations did they form? Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Myra Bradwell).

Radical Reconstruction in the South: "The Tocsin of Freedom" (Union League, the black vote, Confederate states readmitted to the Union, State Constitutions, educational and other institutions); The Black Officeholder (Hiram Revels, Blanche K. Bruce Pinckney B.S. PinchbackJonathan Wright, Robert Smalls--South Carolina, Louisiana, and the Sout Carolina Sea Islands); Carpetbaggers and Scalawags (Who were the infamous Carpetbaggers and Scalawags?); Southern Republicans in Power (What did the Reconstruction governments in the South accomplish?); The Quest for Prosperity (To what extent was the South able to develop economically?).

The Overthrow of Reconstruction: Reconstruction's Opponents (What accounted for the rising opposition to Reconstruction? Who was against it?); "A Reign of Terror" (secret southern societies, Ku Klux Klan, violence, Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871) ; The Liberal Republicans (Why did commitment to reconstructon begin to decline? Liberal Republicans such as Lyman Trumbull, E.L. Godkin, Horace Greeley); The North's Retreat (Liberal attack on Reconstructon, economic depression, Civil Rights Act of 1875, the Slaughterhouse Cases (1873), U.S. v. Cruikshank); The Triumph of the Redeemers (Mississippi's White rifle clubs, violence, Wade Hampton in South Carolina); The Disputed Election and Bargain of 1877 (What happened in the presidential election of 1876, and what is referred to as the "Bargain of 1877"?); The End of Reconstruction.


17 March Tuesday

Happy St. Patty's Day!

Reading Guide Week #6: An Age of Reform, 1820-1840

Chapter 12: An Age of Reform 1820-1840

Introduction: Abby Kelley and the Age of Reform. . . In the first few decades of the 19th century, there was a period of "freedom's ferment"--in the words of Alice Felt Tyler. Along with the organization of artisan men and others for universal white manhood suffrage, there was a cultural emphasis on the moral--by the 1830s, women and/ or blacks were organizing for their rights, too. Abolition brought violence to the North in the 1830s, and in itself, divided people. After 1840, the question of women's rights further divided the reform community, which by midcentury was divided over women's rights and abolotion. Some thought that the issue of women's rights would make abolition less obtainable.

Temperance, abolition, and women's rights all became more organized in a context of cultural experimentation--there was the Second Great Awakening, along with more secular ideas, and a number and terrific variety of experimental communities--looking to find utopia here on earth.

The Reform Impulse: Reform and the perfection of earthly life--Utopian Communities (100 reform communiites before the CW; "Utopian" reference to Thomas More, cooperation & social harmony, "socialism" and "communism"); Shakers (impact on outside world, Ann Lee, gender, "virgin purity", orphans, furniture); Oneida (est. 1848, NY, John Humphrey Noyes, "complex marriage", "exclusive affections", adultery, eugenics); Worldly Communities (Brook Farm, Transcendentalists, Charles Fourier's phalanxes, Blithedale Romance); and Owenties (Communitarian Robert Owen, Harmony Community-Indiana, equality, women's rights, divorce, difficulties, Josiah Warren, anarchism); Religion and Freedom (property ownership, independence, religious revivalism, Second Great Awakening, perfectionism); Temperence Movement (American Temperance Society, 1826); Critics of Reform (popularity of taverns, Catholics); Reformers and Freedom (morality and moral order, liberty and slavery, self-fulfillment, "moral groundwork. . . the virtue of self-possession and self-control in individual citizens." American Tract Society, American Bible Society); The Invention of the Asylum (jails, poorhouses, asylums, orphanages); The Common School (common schools, state school systems, Horace Mann and his curriculum, regional differences).

The Crusade Against Slavery: Colonization (deportation schemes and ideas, Monrovia, Liberia, Harriet Martineau, supporters--Henry Clay, John Marshall, Daniel Webster, Andrew Jackson); Blacks and Colonization (blacks migrated to Liberia, their motivations, opposition claimed Americaqn rights); Militant Abolitionism (1830s, slavery a sin, David Walker's Appeal--An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World); The Emergence of Garrison William Lloyd Garrison, 1831 The Liberator, immediate abolition: "I will not equivocate--I will not excuse--I will not retreat a single inch--and I will be heard."); Spreading the Abolitionist Message (Pamphlets, organization, Theodore Weld, religious revival, testimonial literature--accounts of maltreatment of slaves--notice the graphic of the children's abolition book, with the alphabet); Slavery and Moral Suasion (abolitionist use of provocative language designed to persuade--thus the significance of "moral 'suasion"); Abolitionists and the Idea of Freedom (abolitionists reinforced the idea of freedom as self-ownership and one's ability to enjoy "the fruits of one's labor." fundamental changes required); A New Vision of America (universal entitlement, inclusion of blacks--Lydia Maria Child's An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans called Africans, angelina Grimke, Declaration of Independence, slavery a contradiction to national ideas about freedom).

Black and White Abolitionism: Black Abolitionists (James Forten, Frederick Douglass, Josia Henson, Uncle Tom's Cabin); Abolitionism and Race (Martin Delany, Henry Highland Garnet, Edmund Quincy, crusade); Slavery and American Freedom ("freedom celebrations," 1808 celebrations, color-blind citizenship, Samuel Cornish, John Russwurm, Frederick Douglass's Independence Day Oration 1852); Gentlemen of Property and Standing (northern hostility, commercial interests with ties to the South, 1835 anti-Garrison riot, Eliajah P. Lovejoy, John Quincy Adams); Slavery and Civil Liberties (mob attacks and ideas of freedom, the "emptiness," broadened appeal, freedom of speech and the press and the "rights of every freeman.").

Origins of Feminism: The Rise of the Public Woman (evangelical Protestants and Quakers, Congregationalists, Lucy Colman, women and activism in the public sphere, parades and lectures, Dorothea Dix, Female Moral Reform Society); Women and Free Speech (Angelina and Sarah Grimke, Quakerism, Frances Wright, the right of women to speak in public, Maria Stewart, Letters on the Equality of the Sexes in 1838); Women's Rights (Why were the Grimke sisters so motivated to fight for abolition and then for women's rights? Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Theodore Weld, Seneca Falls 1848, Anti-slavery Convention in London 1840, Lydia Maria Child, issues--married women's property laws, custody, divorce); Feminism and Freedom (women's rights as an international movement, The Free Woman 1832 Paris, Margaret Fuller-Woman in the Nineteenth Century published in 1845, The Dial, The New York Tribune, Abby Kelley); Women and Work (Sojourner Truth in 1851-"Aint I a Woman?" domestic servants, "factory girls", Pauline Davis, economic independence, Bloomerism and the confinement of women's clothing, "boundaries of freedom"); Slavery of Sex (the idea of "slavery of sex" empowered women, critique of marriage, Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell, Mary Wollstonecraft-A Vinciation of the Rights of Woman in 1790s, Ernestine Rose, Married women's property laws in Mississippi and New York); "Social Freedom" (idea of sexual freedom and "ownership" for both slave and free women, idea of public v. private roles for women); Abolitionist Schism women's rights v. abolition became a divisive issue among reformers--American Anti-Slavery Society and the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, John Greenleaf Whittier, Liberty Party, James G. Birney).


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10 March Tuesday - 12 March Thursday

(County Election)

Reading Guide Week #5: Expansion of Democracy & Slavery

The first of this week's chapters addresses the expansion of democracy and the leadership of Andrew Jackson, while the second of our chapters addresses the expansion of slavery. With geographic expansion, democracy and slavery create increasing conflict as states are admitted into the union.

Chapter 10: What is the impact of these ideas and institutions on the direction of the American lives--in what ways do they unite Americans, and in what ways are they divisive? As you read about the political parties, think about who they represent? What is the impact of the westward movement on political parties, and what does Andrew Jackson symbolize? Who was Andrew Jackson? Pay special attention to the ideas affixed to the Democratic and Whig parties in the age of Jackson; ideas about public and private freedom; and divisons over the tariff. In this chapter, Foner develops the ideas behind the growing factions, and the various reasons--both cultural and political, for these divisions. After you finish reading, consider American culture--what do you find are its most important characteristics in the 1820s?

(Chapters 10 & 11)

Chapter 10: Democracy in America, 1815-1840

TRIUMPH OF DEMOCRACY: Increasing number of wage earners; 1829-only North Carolina, Rhode Island, and Virginia still had property requirements; "Ownership of Oneself"; The "Dorr War" in Rhode Island; 1840-90%+ of adult white men eligible to vote; de Tocqueville on democracy--"a culture that encouraged individual initiative, belief in equality, and an active public sphere populated by numerous voluntary organizations that sought to improve society." "Parades, bonfires, mass meetings, party cnvetnions;" "citizen;" status of women and non-white men--reflecting a natural order of endownments; "information revolution"; penny press; NY Sun and the NY Herald; sensationalism; Freedom's Journal; Philadelphia Mechanic's Advocate; reduced prices and postal rates; Lydia Maria Child, Catharine Maria Sedgwick, and Catharine Beecher in the public sphere; public v. private; "racial democracy"; Herman Melville; new states and old after 1800 increasingly added "white" to limit the suffrage; 1821 NY required black voters to have $250; Thaddeus Stevens; by 1860, only five New England states had only 4% of the free black population and had the same voting basis for whites and blacks; federal government barred free blacks from service in state militias and the army.

NATIONALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS: The American System; currency differences; 1806 The National Road (Cumberland); post War of 1812 developments in transportation; Reblicans Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun; James Monroe's plan for development; national bank, tariff on imports, federal financing for roads and canals; Second Bank of the United States; Panic of 1819; speculation and European trade; controversy over banking role; Missouri controversy; Missouri Compromise; "Era of Good Feelings"; federal constitution "comity" clause; Slavery question, westward expansion, and the Republican Party.

NATION, SECTION, & PARTY: The Monroe Doctrine; The election of 1824; "diplomatic declaration of independence"; natinalism; Andrew Jackson v. John Quincy Adams; Henry Clay; the "corrupt bargain"; JQ Adams' program; "liberty is power"; Martin van Buren and the Democratic Party--how does van Buren represent the "new" politician? van Buren and political parties; planters of the South and the "plain" republicans--farmers and workers, of the North; the election of 1828.

AGE OF JACKSON: Andrew Jackson; Political parties and mass entertainment; politicians as heroes; Old Hickory, Harry of the West, the Little Magician/ the Sly Fox; importance of the parties; party conventions; role of newspapers; "kitchen cabinet"; the issues--banks, tariffs, currency, internal improvements, national v. local authority, along with national and sectional loyalties; Democrats & social classes; "nonproducers"; Whigs; public v. private definitions of freedom and the political parties; ideas about the role of government--explain the party views on the role of the government and its relationship to freedom; "fanatics in freedom"; states' rights; ideas about individual morality; South Carolina & the nullification crisis; "tariff of abominations"; southern consumers; South Carolina planters; John C. Calhoun and southern sectionalism; Floride Calhoun and Peggy Eaton; and "liberty & union"; Indian Removal--the Supreme Court and the desire for land; Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Indians (NC, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi); Johnson v. M'Intosh (1823); Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831); and Worcester v. Georgia (1832); William Apess, A Son of the Forest (1831).

BANK WAR AND AFTER: Nicholas Biddle, Pennsylvania; Van Buren; role of the "pet" banks; the Panic of 1837; Van Buren and the Election of 1840. (know just the basics here).

Chapter 11: Pay attention to some of the statistics below regarding the growth of "King Cotton," along with being able to identify the various classes of southern society. Who holds the most power, and what is their relationship with others in the South? In daily life, how do the "weak" outwit the more powerful? I have not outlined the final sections of this chapter in as much detail, but this chapter is very important to understanding American social and cultural history. Read carefully, then reconstruct the lives of American Planters and Slaves--how then would you characterize southern antebellum life? Look carefully at the justification for slavery--how could men clamor for rights and yet justify the enslavement of others?

Chapter 11: The Peculiar Institution

THE OLD SOUTH : Frederick Douglass and his career; 1808 end of "external" slave trade; by Civil War almost 4 million slaves--1/3rd total population and 1/2 southern population; British Empire abolished slavery iin 1833; cotton and international trade--3/4 world cotton from the (southern) U.S.; relationship to growing textile trade; by 1803, cotton most important American export; "the slave population exceeded the value of the nation's factories, railroads, and banks combined." "The Second Middle Passage"--internal slave trade to lower South; role in U.S. economy; significance of New Orleans; St. Louis & Baltimore; South in 1860 produced less than 10% of nation's manufactured goods; "cotton king"; southern farm families; Appalachian settlers; importance of home production; "plain folk"; Planter Class; in 1850 most owned 5 or fewer slaves; increase in the price of slaves in 19th century minimizing competition; significance of Natchez, Mississippi; "spending" money in the South; Paternalism in 19th century; "code of honor"; condition of southern women; "proslavery argument"--how did southerners justify slavery? Aggressive and defensive stance in 1830s--that equality and liberty for all was a mistake; example of George Fitzhugh; Lincoln's story of Dr. Ross; "freedom not possible without slavery."

LIFE UNDER SLAVERY: Be able to explain the legal confinement of slaves, conditions of slave life; living conditions for free blacks in the South; differences b/t the upper and lower south; the slave work regimen--the use of slave labor; gang v. task labor; the nature of slavery in the cities, and the keeping of order in the slave south. This section is extremely important to understanding American culture and society, so read it carefully. What was slave life in the South, and to what extent were there possibilities as well as the obvious limitations?

SLAVE CULTURE: This section is also important, an extension of the above--Read carefully regarding the slave familly, the composition of the slave family, gender roles, the significance of religion, and the desire for old testament freedom. Read this section carefully--what, for example, was the significance of folk tales such as Breer Rabbit?

RESISTANCE TO SLAVERY: How could slaves rebel against slavery in their daily lives? What happened on the Amistad? Know the slave revolts--Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vasey, and Nat Turner--why did these revolts occur and what was the role of leadership? What did these revolts accomplish?

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3 March Tuesday

Please note: for Weeks 6 & 7, you only need read Chapters 12 & 15, on Reform and Reconstruction.

Reading Guide Week #4: Early Republic & Industrialization

Despite the dislike of political factions, two different visions for the new Republic emerge, gaining support from different groups of people--who are the leaders of these factions, and who are their supporters? Much of the emerging debate is about the strength of a federal government; what are the issues that divide the states?

(Chapters 8 & 9)

Chapter 8: Securing the Republic 1790-1815

POLITICS IN AN AGE OF PASSION: Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton's economic program; Hamilton's supporters--financiers, manufacturers, and merchants; James Madison and Thomas Jefferson's vision of westward expansion; Republic of independent farmers; free trade; role of speculators and whiskey distillers; southern interests; "constructionists"; 1790 agreement--regarding Hamilton's program and the establishment of the national capital; Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant, Benjamin Banneker, the capital, and the use of slaves; division over the French Revolution (Jefferson v. Hamilton, for example); alliance b/t U.S. and France (1778)-neutrality 1793; John Jay Treaty 1794 controversy; Federalists and Republicans and liberty; Whiskey Rebellion 1794; political debate and literacy and (pamphlets) American press; William Manning & The Key of Liberty; Democratic-Republican Societies; Thomas Paine (Rights of Man); Rights of Women, Mary Wollstonecraft (Vindication ofthe Rights of Women); & Judith Sargent Murray ("On the Equlity of the Sexes").

ADAMS PRESIDENCY: Adams and Election of 1796; French negotiations; Fries's Rebellion; Alien & Sedition Acts; Matthew Lyon; Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions; Revolution of 1800; Jefferson & Liberty"; role of slavery in Jefferson's election; Pennsylvania Abolition Society; Fugitive Slave Clause & enforcement; Haitian Revolution; and Gabriel's Rebellion.

JEFFERSON IN POWER: Washington D.C.; Jefferson's Policies; Judicial Review and John Marshall; Marbury v. Madison (1803); Fletcher v. Peck (1810); Louisiana Purchase: Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804); slavery in Louisiana & New Orleans (differences b/t English/ American and French and Spanish laws); Naval Battle in Tripoli (1804); 1807 Embargo and the 1809 Non-Intercourse Act.

SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE: 1800-400,000 Americans lived west of the Appalachians; Inidan "Age of Prophecy"; Tecumsah's Vision; Tenskwatawa; 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe (William Henry Harrison); War of 1812 and its support (the West and the South, why?); 1814 British attack on Washington D.C.; Fort McHenry Battle and the "Star Spangled Banner" (Francis Scott Key); and the End of the Federalist Party.

The economic changes and responses to them, in the early 19th century, are key to understanding American society and culture. In this era of "revolutions, "clocks" begin to replace the time imposed by the sun and the seasons. This is an era of industrialization in which wage labor begins to replace artisan labor, and cities begin to grow. How do people react to these fundamental changes in their lives? Do you think we face changes of similar magnitude in our own lives?

Chapter 9: The Market Revolution, 1800-1840

NEW ECONOMY: Read this section over and then explain how roads, steamboats, the Erie Canal, railroads, the telegraph, settlement west, and the expansion of cotton in the South (after Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin)--all contributed to the Market Revolution.

MARKET SOCIETY: Westward expansion and commercial farming; credit and loans; John Deere and the Steel Plow (1837); CYrus McCormick and the Reaper (1831); Wheat & Corn; St. Louis, Cincinnati, & Chicago; urban growth; specialization of labor; Samuel Slater and the first textile facotories; Jefferson's embargos and the beginnings of American manufacture; Waltham, Massachusetts and Lowell (& Pawtucket, Rhode Island); locating on the "fall line" for water power; "American System of Manufactures"; Eli Terry and Eli Whitney; Industrial definition of time and place; time set by clocks; artisan pay and prices; Lowell "mill girls"; Lucy Larcom; immigration; Cunard Line; reasons for Irish immigration-laborers (Great Famine 1845-1851); German immigrants (craftsmen and farmers); Nativism (anti-Ctholic, urban Democratic "machines" and "bosses"); riots in NY City and Philadelphia; Corporations; Darmouth College v. Woodward (1819); Gibbons v. Ogden (1824); Roger B. Taney; Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842).

THE FREE INDIVIDUAL: The idea of the West and available land; John L. O'Sullivan and "Manifest Destiny"; Transcendentalism (Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau); Individualism (proseperity, privacy, material wealth and accumulation, Walden); The Second Great Awakening (Charles Grandison Finney, revivals, religious expansion, democratization of American Christianity, mass movement, Methodists, Herman Melville-"gospeliz[ing] the world anew", thriving movements in areas of expansion and economic change).

LIMITS OF PROSPERITY: Era of prosperity, seen in the career of John Jacob Astor; 220,000 blacks in the free states saw limited opportunities; race violence in Cincinnati, New York, and Philadelphia; black community (mutual aid and educational societies, the African Mehodist Episcopal Curch); Richard Allen of Philadelphia; conflict b/t white and black aritsans and laborers; women and the "cult of domesticity"; women's changing roles as economic production moved outside the home, outside the family economy; "Republican Motherhood" and female virutes of domesticity--yet decrease in fertility, women were having fewer children; increasing "private" nature of the family; married women could not make legal contracts or control the ownership of their property; poor and young women were usually domestic servants, seamstresses, or factory workers; rising middle class values emphasized the domestic virtues of married women; Lydia Maria Child (The Frugal Housewife, 1829); rift between artisans and laborers and women workers; 1819 & 1837 panics and depression; bankruptcy; 1820s workingmen's parties--supported candidates, free public education, end to imprisonment for debt, and the 10 hour day; 1830s rising prices; 1835 20 NY talors were convicted of "conspiracy for comgining to seek higher wages," resulting in a public procession ("burial of liberty"); 1834 & 1836 Lowell Protests; unionization and the challenge to the ideals of individualism; laborers only began to assert that "economic security" was an "essential part of American freedom."

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23 February Tuesday

Reading Guide Week #3

Why do you think the American Revolution occurred--who were its most critical supporters, and to what extent did they achieve what they wanted in the establishment of the Constitution? What values do you find most strongly expressed in the final Constitution and Bill of Rights?

Introduction: In the "Revolution Within," Foner addresses ways in which the American Revolution loosens traditional divisions of class and religion. The question is, to what extent were these divisions lessened among people in the defining of the new Republic? What were the limits of equality and liberty, and how did these definitions differ by state and region? Was the American Revolution radical or conservative? Most of the questions are focused on Chapter 6, with less emphasis on Chapter 7--focus on the social and cultural aspects. nay

(skip Chapter 5)

Chapter 6: Revolution Within

DEMOCRATIZING FREEDOM: Ideas of equality and liberty; women, slaves, small farmers, artisans, and laborers; prewar elite in Pennsylvania; new political factions in Pennsylvania--pro-independence artisan and lower-class communities of Philadelphia; ThomasPaine (Common Sense); Benjamin Rush; Timothy Matlack; Thomas Young; alliance with supporters of the Second Continental Congress; Philadelphia radicals and equality; property qualifications for voting; Pennsylvania'sproposed state constitution: one-house legislature elected annually by all male tax payers over 21, abolished office of governor and property qualifications for officeholders, affordable schools in counties, and a clause guaranteeing freedoms of speech and of writing, along with religious liberty.

John Adams' "balanced governments" reflecting social divisions with "upper House" for the wealthy and a "Lower House" for "ordinary men (Thoughts on Government)--with governor and judiciary to keep both in line; Adams' model in all but Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Vermont; fearful of the power of the Governor (why do you think Massachusetts was the only state to give the governor veto power?).

How did John Adams and Thomas Pained differ on the issue of who should vote? How did the dispersal of power in Virginia, South Carolina, and Maryland compare to that in the North? Who culd vote in Vermont? What was the impact of new voting rules after the Revolution? Why did some women vote in New Jersey for a sort time? Which state did not provide for annual legislative elections?

TOWARD RELIGIOUS TOLERATION: What was the impact of religious pluralism on the development of religious tolerance and liberty in the colonies and the new nation? In what ways are Quebec and France examples of how the war loosened colonial anti-Ctholicism? What did Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginis reveal about his religious ideas? What is "deism"? What were Jefferson's ideas about religious liberty? Which state established complete religious liberty in its constitution? Religious toleration allowed for more dynamic religious institutions, what was the impact of individualism on religious authority?

DEFINING ECONMIC FREEDOM: What were the reasons for the decline of indentured servitude? What was the impact of the ideasof "republican citizenship" on ideas of labor? Economic equality and social order; Economic equality and land ownership; protesting inflation with "just" prices; "public good" and "price controls" vs. "free" market advocates; Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations (1776).

LIMITS OF LIBERTY: 1-Loyalists in New York, Pennsylvania, backcountry Carolinas and Georgia; 20-25 % of the free population; fear of anarchy; class and ethnic fears; Quakers, Mennonites, and MOravians; what happened to the Loyalists after the war? 2-Indians: Proclamation of 1763; Kentucky; What hhappened to the Indians after the war? (give examples such as the Ohio Valley); What happened to those such as Joseph Brant who supported the British? 3-Slaves: What was James Otis' views about slavery and freedom?

SLAVERY AND REVOLUTION: Slavery and freedom become to some extent relative terms; Ideas of James Otis; Samuel Sewall, The Selling of Joseph (1700); Benjamin Rush; petitions for freedom and their significance; Charleston Parade for Liberty in 1766; Lemuel Haynes; British and American slaves and reparations; Voluntary Emancipation after the war; gradual abolition in the North; free black communities.

DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY: What was the impact of the Revolution on women? Deborah Sampson and Esther Reed; women's political organization; masculinity; the case of Mrs. Martin; Rhetoric of Republican Motherhood; what was the impact of the Revolution on women?

Chapter 7: Founding A Nation, 1783-1789

(Focus on the patterns of land settlement, Shaye's Rebellion, and the impact of the Constitution generally on people and economic opportunities in the wake of the Revolution.

AMERICA UNDER THE DONFEDERATION: What were the first policies regarding western settlement and the INdians? What were the patterns of western settlement and the Norhwest Ordinance of 1787? Why did Shaye's Rebellion occur, who was unhappy and why? Who did the Nationalists represent? In what ways was democracy curtailed in the constitution?

A NEW CONSTITUTION:What was the Constituttional debate over slavery, and what was the end result? To what extent did the final constitution represent a broad slice of the population? Why was the Bill of Rights added? Who did the Bill of Rights protect and how?

RATIFICATION DEBATE AND THE ORIGIN OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS: To what extent did people identify themselves as Americans? What happened to Indians and to blacks in the wake of the Revolution?

WE THE PEOPLE: Mercantalism,

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17 February Tuesday

Reading Guide Week #2

Chapter 3: Creating Anglo-AMerica, 1660-1750

Chapter 4: Slavery, Freedom, and the Struggle for Empire to 1763

You should read these chapters as narrative, as a story, while asking the question, what kind of societies and cultures were established in the New World and why? Especially, what ideas surround the notion of freedom in various communities, and why? What do the "rights of Englishmen" mean to planters in the Chesapeake? To Yeoman freeholders in New England? In which colony are the rights of the individual most important? The rights of the community?

How do the developing ideas of freedom and rights compare to the developing ideas about slavery? Is the developing institution of chattel slavery a result of economic needs or British ideas about race? Both? To what extent are Africans/ African Americans able to create their own culture in the New World?

Both Freedom (from Monarchy) and Slavery (Atlantic Slave Trade) take firm root in the British North American colonies--how do you explain this? Put together an explanation based upon evidence and expamples from the reading. Make an argument about freedom and slavery, then persuasively support it with examples. Read these study questions below, read the chapter, then put together your thoughts about freedom and slavery in the colonies before the Revolution.

Chapter 3: Creating Anglo-AMerica, 1660-1750

EXPANSION OF BRITISH EMPIRE: Mercantalism, New Netherland, the "rights of Englishmen (and Englishwomen), Sir Edmund Andros, the Iroquois, fur trade, New York's Charter of Liberties, Fundamental Constituttions of Carolina, Pennsylvania's "Holy Experiment", Quker Liberty, William Penn, English conceptions of Africans and race, historic slavery vs. the Atlantic Slave Trade, slavery in British North America compared to slavery in the Caribbean and Brazil, Las Siete Partidas, intermariage, slavery in the Chesapeake, the meaning of Bacon's Rebellion (why did Bacon rise up against Berkeley?), ideas about slavery and freedom in the Chesapeake

COLONIES IN CRISIS: How did te Glorious Revolution affect the colonies? Maryland Uprising, Leisler's Rebellion, Salem Witch Trials

GRWOTH OF COLONIAL AMERICA: Who were the first settlers? This answer to this question gives us an important foundation for understanding social history, information especially about the first British settlements. Read over this section, then write a paragraph about the first settlers--take a look at table 3.1. Where did people come from, and why? Why did the Germans come to the English colonies, and what wa the role of religion in these migrations? In the 18th century, to what extent did settlers find religious toleration? How were the New England, Middle, and southern colonies distinct by the mid 18th century? How did trade ("consumerism") become important in the colonies? How did trade help to increase the size of colonial cities, and who were the artisans?

SOCIAL CLASSES: Read this section then think about the social hierarchy in the mid-18th century colonies--who were the elite, and how did the elite differ in the three cultural regions (New England, Middle Colonies and NY, and the Chesapeake)? Compare the notion of aristocracy in these regions, along with the nature of poverty. Who occupied the "middle ranks"? What was the role of women in the "family economy"?

Chapter 4: Slavery, Freedom, and the Struggle for Empire to 1763

SLAVERY AND THE EMPIRE: Explain the Triangular Trades, the African contribution to the trading system, the Middle Passage, and the rise of slavery in the Chesapeake--its development in the late 17th century. How did African slavery compare to that of the Indians? How did rice culture in the lower colonies (Carolinas and Georgia) affect the development of African slavery in these colonies? In what ways was slavery critical to the economies of the northern colonies? Take a look at Table 4.1 as a review--whic colonies had the highest number of African slaves in 1770--why?

SLAVE CULTURE AND RESISTANCE: Within the confines of slavery, with its increased legal codification and confienement for Africans/ African-Americans, to what extent is this population able to create culture--to define their own world? How does this differ with subsequent generations? How do slaves resist and rebel against slavery? In what ways do slaves use conflict among Europeans as well as with various Indian groups to their advantage?

EMPIRE OF FREEDOM: Why do the British see themselves as the most enlightened and advanced of the European nations (especially when they compared themselves to the Spanish)? Consider Patriotism, the British Constitution, the "language of liberty", & Republican and Liberal ideas of freedom.

PUBLIC SPHERE: What examples of self-government in the colonies do you find, and how does the right to vote play a role in their development. What does Foner mean by "political cultures"? Along with the development of colonial assemblies (and which do you find to be most important), how does the colonial press contribute to ideas of liberty and freedom? How do the early curts define the limits of freedom of the press? (for example, Cato's Letters and John Peter Zenger) Does the enlightenment affect Americans? (compare the Enlightenment ideas to those of the Great Awakening below--are they related?)

GREAT AWAKENING: How does the Great Awakening affect Americans in different regions, and who is affected the most? Why do you think it occurs? What did preachers tell the people who amassed at revival meetings? Who was George Whitfiield and what was his message? Were there opponents? Why? What was the overall impact of the Great Awakening (and here consider the impact of enlightenment ideas, too)?

IMPERIAL RIVALRIES & BATTLE FOR THE CONTINENT : Read these sections for the narrative, for the story of the events leading up to the decades of crisis before the American Revolution. How do these events affect the colonists' views of who they are, how do they affect their identity/ identities on the eve of the Revolution?

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14 February Saturday

Welcome & Reading Guide Week #1



The purpose of this "Lecture" is to introduce the organization of our online class, and the assignments, and then to address the first week's readings. I suggest google earth "virtual travel" to prepare you for the first readings--use google earth and the world atlas to travel to some of the place you read about.

1-Welcome. . . Here is an explanation of the course requirements. Please note that you need to contribute to Class Discussions weekly for participation and Assigned Question credit; postings will not be accepted in the weeks after the reading is assigned--in other words, for credit you need to participate in the week the reading is assigned. Also, please note that you need a reliable internet source while taking Quizzes; I cannot reset them without a documented internet break.

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First of all, this class is based on reading, discussion, and the writing of answers to questions. You will then be asked to answer thematic questions about the course of American History before 1865, and to think about why events occur. Along with the text, there will be some documents to be found on the web. I also wanted to say a few words about the course requirements, which are more fully explained now on the "Requirements" page--take a look.

FIRST of all, Participation: Participation means turning work in on time. There is ONE discussion Board Posting assigned, along with commenting to these postings. These Discussion Postings should be in the form of argument and evidence--answer the question with your interpretation, backing up your points with examples, especially from the documents. You also get points for your check-in and introducton. You must contribute comments in the week of the assigned reading, no later than Midnight, Sunday for each week.

SECOND, quizzes: Quizzes will be based on reading, discussion, and class themes/ questions found on this THURSDAY page. I will be giving you a practice quiz this weekend. One you can complete in your own time, the others will be timed--as will be the regular quizzes. I will give you EXTRA CREDIT points for these quiz, and the main objective here is to give you practice and a sampling of my questions. I cannot reset quizzes without some kind of documented evidence of an internet break--so be sure to have a reliable internet connection--some students take the quizzes at school.

THIRD, the Midterm Essays: While the quizzes will test you on particular points from reading and class, the Midterm Essays are designed to help you think about the material, and to understand significance. I will be posting questions to prepare you for these essays--they will be the questions you find on these "Lecture" pages. For example, comparing Native, European, and African cultures and relationsips in the Americas, which you will do this week, will in turn help to prepare you for your choices on the Midterm. I will post these over the weekend, and let you know where to find them.

The essays are designed as "in-class" exams. In other words, study the material, then access the question and sit down to write. I will grade them as "in class" essays rather than formal papers, so it is to everyone's advantage to take them in this way. I will be primarily evaluating the quality and thoughtfulness of your answers, as well as your points of evidence. Your essay should be coherent and clearly written, though again, I will be grading it as an exam that you sat down to write in an hour/ hour and-a-half.

Finally, though this is a virtual class room, so to speak, please show respect for one another and for the process of scholarship by doing your own work, and by helping one another. I will have regular chat room sections, for "real time" discussions, and I believe you all can meet in the BB chat rooms as well. You can have virtual discussion and study sessions, so please use the technology to get the most out of the class.

I hate to even bring this up, but I must underscore that any PLAGIARISM results in a "F" in the class and a letter to the school. I want to hear YOUR ideas, I want to read YOUR work, not the ideas of others. Develop YOUR critical thinking skills, and it is hard work. It is challenging to read, think, and write history--but in the end, it adds to your own development and depth of knowledge.

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2-Reading Guide Week #1

The focus of this class is on the Social and Cultural History of the United States. Regarding the reading, then, the focus will be those chapters addressing society and culture--especially the impact of race, ethnicity, gender, and class over the whole of American History, and on the impact of ideas. In these first chapters, focus on British North America, focus on the basics of the first colonies, their establishment, and the ideas and customs of Native North Americans and the British, and how they compare to the Spanish and the French. Especially, focus on the various ideas about liberty, and how they change over time. In these first two chapters, read for these general points.

Chapter 1/ A New World, pp. 4-49

Who were the first Native Americans in what becomes British North America? How do you characterize their cultures--ideas about land ownership? Gender? Ideas about freedom?

What are some examples of Christian liberty? The role of authority? What were African ideas of freedom and slavery?

What was the role of the Portuguese in the slave trade? The Spanish? What were the demographic results of European exploration and settlement? What was the role of violence and religion? Who was Las Casas, and why was he significant?

What was the role of economic trade in the establishment of Empires and colonies?

What were the goals of the Dutch? The French?

In what ways were the Native North Americans affected, and to what extent did they fight back? Examples?

Chapter 2/ English America, pp. 50-89

Read about the beginings of the Virginia Colony, Maryland, and New England. How do the economies established here compare? Religious ideas? Ideas about freedom?

How did the populations compare in these regions, who were the settlers? Why was "moral liberty" so important to the Puritans? What happens to Puritan society over time, and how can you explain this with the half-way covenant?

In what ways does the trial of Anne Hutchinson reveal the nature of religion, class, and gender in early New England society?

How do you explain the Pequot Massacre? The "Rights of Englishmen"?

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9 February Monday

Good Morning Class! Please Check-in and Post your Introductions, then begin the reading and explore the geography with google world. Also study the class requirements and webpage so you know where to find information. I will be back here on Friday with your first study guide.